The Parliament of India
Basic facts about Indian Parliament
Article 79 to 122 (Part V) of the Constitution deals with Parliament.
Parliament of India consists of:
• The President,
• The Council of States,
• The House of the People.
Rajya Sabha or Council of States represents the states and union territories of Indian Union.
Lok Sabha or House of People represents the People of India as a whole.
Is President of India member of Parliament?
The President of India is not a member of either House of Parliament and does not sit in the Parliament. However he is an integral part of the Parliament as a Bill passed by both the houses of Parliament cannot become a law without the President's assent.
Composition of Rajya Sabha:
Maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is fixed at 250.
Out of which, 238 are representatives of states and union territories and 12 are nominated by President.
At present Rajya Sabha has 245 members (225+8+12).
Composition of Lok Sabha:
Maximum strength of Lok Sabha is fixed at 552.
Out of which, 530 are representatives of states, 20 of union territories and 2 are nominated by President.
At present, Lok Sabha has 545 members (524+19+2).
Duration of two Houses:
Duration of Rajya Sabha-
The Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber i.e. a permanent body not subject to dissolution.
However 1/3 of its members retire every second year. There seats are filled up by fresh
elections at the beginning of every 3rd year. Retiring members are eligible for re-election.
Term of Rajya Sabha Member- 6 years
Duration of Lok Sabha:
Term of Lok Sabha - 5 years
Extention and Early Dissolution of Lok Sabha-
President is authorised to dissolve the Lok Sabha at any time even before the completion of
5 years which cannot be challenged in the court of law.
Term of Lok Sabha can be extended during the period of National Emergency by a law of Parliament for one year at a time.
Membership of Parliament-
- He must be a citizen of India,
- He must make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation before the person authorised by the election commission,
- He must not be less than 30 years in case of Rajya Sabha, not less than 25 years of age in case of Lok Sabha,
- He must possess other qualifications as described by Parliament.
- If he holds any office of profit under the Union or State Government,
- If he is of unsound mind declared by a court,
- If he is an undischarged insolvent,
- If he is not a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign state,
- If he is disqualified under any law made by Parliament.
Other disqualification has laid down under Representation of People Act,1951.
Salaries and Allowances :
Salary of Members of Parliament is Rs.1,00,000 (including other allowances).
Presiding Officers of Parliament:
Presiding officers of Lok Sabha-
-Deputy Speaker in absence of Speaker.
Presiding officers of Rajya Sabha--Chairman i.e. Vice- President of India
Language in Parliament:
English and Hindi are used for transacting business in the Parliament. However Presiding Officer can permit a member to address the house in his mother tongue.
Types of Bill presented in the Parliament:
1. Ordinary Bills
2. Money Bills
3. Financial Bills
4. Constitution Amendment Bills.
Multifuctional Role of Parliament:
In the Indian politico-administrative system, Parliament performs a variety of functions.
Powers and functions of Parliament can be classified as:
- Legislative Powers and Functions,
- Executive Powers and Functions,
- Financial Powers and Functions,
- Constituent Powers and Functions,
- Judicial Powers and Functions,
- Electoral Powers and Functions,
- Other Powers and Functions.
Allocation of Seats in Parliament for States and Union Territories:
States having maximum number of seats in Lok Sabha – Uttar Pradesh (80 seats), Maharashtra
(48 seats), West Bengal (42 seats), Bihar (40 seats), Tamil Nadu (39 seats).
States having minimum number of seats in Lok Sabha- Mizoram (1 seat), Nagaland (1 seat), Sikkim (1 seat).
Maximum seats in Lok Sabha of Union Territory- Delhi (7 seats)
Gallantry Awards in India
To honour the acts of bravery and sacrifice of personnel of armed forces and other forces. There are 6 gallantry awards in India insituted by Governtment of India on 26th january, 1950 i.e. Param Vir Chakra, Mahavir Chakra, Vir Chakra, Ashok Chakra, Kirti Chakra , Shaurya Chakra.